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[知乎讨论]什么是“言论自由”?

麦田

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最近在微博讨论“言论自由”,我发现很多主张“言论自由”的朋友,并不太懂它。他们对“言论自由”的理解,基本都是从林达或刘瑜的书中学来的。通俗读物固然有快速启蒙之功效,但也容易让人囫囵吞枣,不求甚解。其实也不能怪这些朋友,关键在于我们从无“公民教育”这门课,大家都是自学,难免偏差

 

简单的说,有两种范畴的“言论自由”。一种是民权意义上的,一种是道德意义上的。这后一种其实很难有共识,因为每个人(或私营法人)的“道德”标准不一样,道德意义的“言论自由”也就千差万别。真正有价值的、或者说需要我们捍卫的是民权意义上的“言论自由”

 

民权或称人权意义的“言论自由”,有多种流派。但无论哪种流派,都有一个基本原则:必须是“公共言论”。这又包括两层含义:1,“言论”的“内容”是公共性的,泛指而不是特指;2,“言论”的“场所”必须是公共的。根据第2条,所有在微博上的言论,其实都不能适用“言论自由”。

 

因为微博是私人公司的,我们在玩微博之前,都要授权同意一个“用户协议”。在这份用户协议中,已经对你的言论进行了若干限制。你同意这份“协议”,就没有了民权意义的“言论自由”,而变成了你和站方的民事关系。我们用比较成熟的美国法律来说明的话:在微博上的所有言论,不适用美国宪法第一修正案(言论自由),而适用美国宪法第五修正案(私有财产)

 

那么,我如果到广场上了,是不是什么都可以说呢?也不是。刚我们说了,你还必须说公共话题。比如你说“不喜好我的人都是猪”,这就受“言论自由”的保护,泛指;你如果说,“不喜好我的张三是猪”,这就不受“言论自由”的保护,特指,可能会被张三诉你侵权。

 

在“广场”上,其实还有一些不能说。以最“自由”的美国来看,不能传播“儿童色情”,这也不受言论自由的保护。而在欧洲,限制会更多一些,比如在德国是绝对不能宣传纳粹,这也不受言论自由的保护。此外,你的言论不能造成“迫在眉睫的危险”。比如你不能在人多拥挤的广场,突然高喊“失火了,失火了,大家快跑”。这样会造成踩踏的危险,这样的言论,依旧不受“言论自由”的保护

 

从这里我们可以看出,受到美国宪法第一修正案保护的“言论自由”,并不是100%的自由,它同样有上面诸多限制。而这,已经可以算“言论自由”保护范围最广的国度了,别的国家法律限制更多。所以,从来就没有100%纯粹的“言论自由”

 

我们更进一步理解,“言论自由”是人权中的一部分,是“自由”的一部分,是其中“积极自由”的一部分。“积极自由”是指“可以。。。做什么。。”的自由,这种自由从来都是和“责任”共生,并且有所限制(比如,你没有杀人的自由);而真正的“自由主义”是坚守“消极自由”,即“免于。。。做什么。。。”的自由(也就是“我不做什么”的自由)。很多朋友都不知道“自由”的这两种区分,以“积极自由”代替“消极自由”,这实际是对“自由主义”的误解和伤害。

 

当然,这个话题扯得有点远了。说回来“言论自由”。让我们回到互联网。首先这里有一个重要的概念区分:“互联网”是公共的,但“网站”是私有的。也就是说,你如果自己建了网站,在互联网上发表言论,受“言论自由”保护;你如果自己没网站,去别的网站发表言论,那不受“言论自由”保护(还是上面说的,第一修正案和第五修正案的关系)

 

我们以服务器在美国的网站举例,根据宪法第一修正案,你如果自己建一个网站,几乎只有“儿童色情”的内容,才是违法的,其他所有内容都合法受到“言论自由”保护。(这也就是为什么成人网站,都在醒目位置提示,严禁“儿童色情”内容。因为他们的服务器在美国)。

 

关于人权意义的“言论自由”标准,最后我们还应该明白一点:它是在不断变化的。以美国为例,在麦卡锡时代,宣传共产主义就是违反了“言论自由”;而现在的时代,人们对言论自由越来越宽松,你在美国宣讲共产主义,绝对不再违法,而是完全的“言论自由”。所以,即使“天赋人权”的人权意义的“言论自由”,也是随着时间改变,社会各力量不断博弈,不断修正的,千万不能以僵化的观点去看待它!

 

说完民权意义的“言论自由”(即法律范畴的“言论自由”),再说说道德范畴的“言论自由”。法律意义的“言论自由”是必须“遵守”,而道德意义的“言论自由”是一种“选择”。因为“言论自由”对多数人来说,是“好”东西,所以多数人“选择”尊重“言论自由”。但有些人和私营公司(网站),也可能选择独裁,只准说他们认可的话,否则就删帖。那是他们的选择。面对这样的人或私营公司(网站),你真的只能做一件事:用脚投票,离开他们。这是你唯一能做的事情。

 

好在绝大多数个人和私营公司(网站),总的说来还是选择了尊重“言论自由”。我们刚说了,这是一种“道德”选择,所以并不是像法律那样,有“硬性”标准。因此不同的个人(公司)就有了不同的“言论自由”的底线。这个底线往往会比法律上的“言论自由”底线要高一点,体现了个体(公司)的利益判断。比如我们举例,某网站的用户协议中,就有一条“不能发表损害本公司利益”的言论。这就是对“言论自由”有了额外的限制。而对个人来说,也是如此。就以我来说吧,罗玉凤也好,宋祖德也好,他们所有的言论,再怎么恶心,我认为都符合我的道德选择中的“言论自由”, 没超越底线;但是,罗玉凤在7.23事件后,诅咒无辜遇难者的言论,就超越了我个人的底线。我不认为支持这样的言论,是道德的“言论自由”;我认为支持这样的言论,要么是对“言论自由”的无知,要么是道德虚无主义者。

 

Sara Shen ,律师

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我同意麦田所说的关于言论自由应该分清我们讨论的是一个宽泛的道德范畴的话题还是法律范畴的话题。以下是我对美国宪法范畴内言论自由的一点粗浅的认识。

在美国,言论自由是一种宪法赋予的公民权利,而宪法的根本目的和宗旨在于限制政府的权利包括政府对公民权利的践踏。因此在美国以违反宪法第一修正案为由而起诉的案子中,所起诉的侵犯言论自由的行为一定有某种政府的endorsement, 最典型的就是政府所制定的法律。假设纽约州制定了一个法律不允许任何人在T恤衫上写辱骂纽约州长的话。那么如果某个人在他的T恤上写了” xx the governor”, 而被判有罪。那么这个人就可能起诉纽约州,理由是上述法律违反了宪法第一修正案。我相信他几乎会100%胜算,原因是在这个简单的假设例子中我们看到了政府的行为对某种言论表达的限制,而这一类言论,即政治言论恰恰是宪法保护的重点。

 

我们把以上例子稍作修改结果将完全不同。假设,某个餐馆的老板给他的店里定了一个规矩,凡是穿辱骂州长的T恤衫的人都不允许在我的餐馆就餐。这里就不涉及第一修正案中的言论自由的问题,因为没有政府的行为。同理,一份私人所有的报纸或网站完全有权利对其所刊载的言论作检选。为什么美国法律注重限制政府而非某个人/公司/团体对言论自由的侵害?我认为原因在于如果对某种言论自由的限制来源于某个私人机构,比如某张私人拥有的报纸不愿意刊登批评民主党的言论,那么批判民主党的言论还是有机会出现在那些支持共和党的报刊上。而如果某种对言论自由的限制来源于政府,比如说你一旦发表这些言论就违反了政府的某个法律,那么这种言论将被完全剥夺表达的机会。

 

成远 ,知乎运营团队,对外合作多一点

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很多朋友都说了美国言论自由是怎么回事,我说一点我对“为什么要言论自由”的理解。

个体是社会的细胞,社会的病症是从社会微观粒子表达出来的。一个社会,如果不允许个人的表达,这个社会真实而重要的问题就无法被其他个体所理解,何谈解决问题?对此汪丁丁曾介绍国怀特海的论述:

怀特海晚年的讲演集《思维方式》前三章的标题及主旨,是阐释“重要性”、“表达”、“理解”这三个最原初的观念。没有这三个观念,我们便不晓得怎样有所思和有所得了。怀特海的阐释,我概括为这样一句话:“在有理解之前先有表达,在有表达之前先有关于重要性的感受。”

言论自由其实是表达自由的一部分,表达的概念更大,除了对环境表达,还有自己身体的表达。而对重要性的感受必须是基于个人才是真实的,没有一个组织、机构可以说它“感受到XX”,而只能说它诉诸XX利益。理解,则涉及第二个人乃至更多的人,没有表达就没有理解的机会存在。

所以,看到“言论自由”,我首先反应的概念是:表达基于个体的生活感受才有真实性,没有表达就不可能有群体间的理解,允许自由表达才有可能让真实而重要的问题被发现。

 

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