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国共内战时期山东土改复查运动中的”左”倾错误

     解放战争时期,在中央和华东局领导下,山东解放区开展了轰轰烈烈的土地改革运动,彻底摧垮了封建土地制度,使广大农民获得了土地,为打败国民党反动派,夺取解放战争的胜利提供了坚实的群众基础。在这场伟大的社会变革中,曾一度出现“左”的错误,造成不良影响。本文就山东土改复查中“左”倾错误的表现、产生原因和教训作一些探讨。

     1946年夏,华东局根据党中央《关于土地问题的指示》 (简称“五四指示”),在山东解放区内开始实行土地改革,同年底告一段落,解放区三分之二以上村庄基本上解决了土地问题。1947年春至年底,华东局根据中央指示,为解决土改中存在的问题,在山东解放区开展了大规模的土改复查运动。这期间,各地普遍发生了“左”倾错误。其表现主要有以下几个方面:
(一)对地主富农打击过度。一是各地大量出对地主富农乱打、乱抓、乱杀现象。不少地方“一开斗争会并不经过清算、说理阶段,也不准被者申诉,一开始就是打人、打死人,甚至每会必斗,每斗必打,每打必死,以打死人多为坚决”①。“左倾错误比较严重的诸城县,“全县12个区各区杀人都在百人以上,有的区多达六七百人”②。二是很多地方将地主富农不加区别一律扫地出门,不给地主分地,给富农分坏地,使他们的基本生活难以维持。莱西县仅一个多周的时间里,就将1100多户地主富农扫地出门,其中许多是开明绅士和对革命有功的军工烈属③。
(二)严重侵犯中农利益。很多地方将部分中农错划为地主或富农,列为斗争对象,被斗中农一般占被斗户总数的百分之十以上,有的地区比数更高,如沾化县八个区就有1684户中农被斗,占被斗户总数的百分之三十七 ④ ,相当一部分中农的土地受到侵犯,甚至有的中农被扫地出门。
(三)损害了民族工商业。各地地主富农兼营的工商业普遍被没收、分配,许多民族工商业者被斗,甚至被打死或扫地出门。例如,土改复查期间,周村200多家商店店主被斗,财产被没收,20多人被打死 ⑤。各地除了村干部办的合作社以外,私营工商业几乎全部倒闭。

     山东解放区土改复查运动中的“左”倾错误十分普遍,而且比较严重。它的产生,有着多方面的原因,分析起来主要有以下几点:
     第一,中央和华东局土改指导思想偏左。
     1946年5月,在国民党进攻面前,中共中央决定在各解放区放手发动群众,广泛开展土地改革运动,最大限度地争取农民援助我党,支持自卫战争。因为土地改革的直接目的是动员广大农民支援战争,所以中央在指导思想上明确把放手发动农民,最大限度地调动农民援助我党摆在整个土改工作的第一位。随着战争局势和农村斗争形势的发展,从1947年初决定进行土改复查开始,中央的土改指导思想明显向左偏转。
     当时,中央之所以决定在各解放区开展大规模土改复查,主要有3个原因:1、中央认为各地土改运动不彻底,存在右的偏向,群众发动不够充分,必须进行激烈斗争,才能解决问题。2、我军反击国民党全面进攻虽然取得重大战果,但敌强我弱的形势仍没有改变,我军急需大量的人力和物力支援。3、通过前段土改动员起来的解放区农民积极支援我军,发挥了极为重要的作用,这对中央是一个鼓舞。
     土改复查开始后,中央急于扩大土改成果,在相当长一段时间里,片面地强调反右,强调群众路线,强调让贫雇农分到足够的土地,强调群众要怎么办就怎么办。结果,“五四指示”等文件关于区别对待地主,保护中农利益,照顾开明绅士,保护工商业等一系列规定,实际上成为一纸空文。对土改中普遍发生的农民的过激行为,中央不仅没有采取措施制止,反而中央领导人给予肯定。如刘少奇曾主张对地主扫地出门,说:“太行经验证明,消灭地主剥削一定要彻底,他们叫做让地主扫地出门,土地财产一切搞干净,让他要饭七天,挑粪三担”⑥。对山东前段土改,中央认为华东局指导思想上右了,“犯了富农路线的错误”⑦。到山东工作不久的华东局书记饶漱石、副书记康生等人,在土改复查中提出一系列“左”的指导思想。他们全盘否定山东解放区土改运动的成绩,错误地提出山东解放区存在对地主、富农过宽的“富农路线”和“地方主义”、“宗派主义”、“右倾机会主义”等问题,错误地对华东局副书记兼山东省政府主席黎玉、渤海区党委书记兼军区政委景晓村、胶东区党委书记兼军区政委林浩等进行批判和处理。为此受到牵连的县委书记以上的领导干部达百人之多。此后,山东“左”倾错误日益加剧,7至9月份发展到非常严重的程度。
     第二,农民的平均主义思想、造反精神和自私、狭隘意识。在中国历史上,平均主义思想与农民运动有着极为密切的联系,它反映了农民要求改变封建土地关系的强烈愿望,具有革命性,但平均主义思想也有落后、倒退的一面。土改复查中,穷怕了的农民为了获得梦寐以求的土地,强烈主张没收一切土地进行平分,结果各地普遍实行土地“大推平”,严重侵犯了中农,过重打击了富农。
     另一方面,农民文化水平低,长期被束缚在一个统治和服从的体系中,默默忍受沉重的压迫和剥削,但他们并不缺少造反精神,一旦被动员起来,往往表现得非常勇敢和具有侵犯性,在革命运动中极容易产生过激行为。在批斗地主的大会上,情绪激动的农民发泄积压已久的愤怒时,就象火山爆发喷出的岩浆一样,很难控制,一些地主常常丧生于他们的拳脚之下。他们意识到自己的巨大力量后,向地主提出苛刻的要求或作出过激举动,如一律将地主扫地出门,甚至强行将地主的妻子女儿当作浮财分掉⑧。
     此外,作为小生产者,农民具有较重的自私、狭隘意识,他们的言行经常从自身利益和个人及家族的恩怨出发,因此使土改斗争更加复杂。有的农民为了多分土地,故意扩大打击面;有的村干部利用职权按其亲疏关系乱划阶级成分;还有的农民乘机搞挟私报复和宗族斗争,随意给人扣“帽子”,实行残酷打击,混淆了阶级阵线。
     第三,基层干部思想上存在“宁左勿右”的误区。
     由于种种原因,尤其是在中央和华东局一再批判“右倾”、“富农路线”的情况下,山东基层干部普遍产生了“越左越革命”、“左比右好”的思想误区,认为“左”是方法问题,右是立场问题,所以“宁左勿右”。由此导致干部中“左”倾思想的发展。很多干部用“左”的眼光看待和处理问题,甚至有的干部认为,减租减息是向地主要“粮”,土地改革是向地主要“地”,土地复查是向地主要“命”⑨。这种“左”的思想误区对山东“左”倾错误的发展起了推动作用。
     第四,长期没有一个划分阶级成分的明确标准。
     我党匆忙发动大规模土地改革和土改复查运动时,缺乏土地改革的经验、试点和研究,长期没有制定颁发划分阶级成分具体标准的文件。因此,各地在划分阶级成分中出现不少问题,很多地方不是按照剥削量,而是按生活水平,甚至是政治态度划分阶级成分。结果将不少小土地出租者、富农、富裕中农甚至中农,贫农划为地主;将不少富裕中农、下中农甚至贫农划为富农,扩大了打击面,造成严重失误。

     1947年秋,中央和华东局开始采取措施纠正“左”倾错误。11月,华东局发出《关于暂停土改及禁止乱杀的指示》,严告各地一律停止土改,禁止乱打、乱抓、乱杀。此后,山东“左”倾错误逐渐得到纠正,党的工作中心由土改复查转向生产救灾。山东解放区土改复查中的“左”倾错误虽然持续时间不长,但留给我们的教训是深刻的。它至少有以下几个方面:
     (一)应尽量避免阶级矛盾激化。
     土地改革是我党领导农民消灭封建土地制度酌一场激烈的阶级斗争。在我党掌握政权的情况下,如何采取适当的斗争策略和方法,既达到土地改革运动的目的,又不使农村阶级矛盾激化,造成剧烈的社会动荡,是一个非常重要的问题。土改复查中,各地普遍乱打、乱抓、乱杀及将地主扫地出门。这种不给出路的做法,导致大批地主逃亡,仅胶济线东段四五个县,就有十万多人逃往国民党统治区”⑩。逃亡地主分子组成反动武装还乡团,寻机进行阶级报复。1947年8月,地主还乡团乘国民党军队重点进攻胶东之机返乡,疯狂屠杀翻身农民。据统计,仅3个月内,还乡团就在潍北、昌南、平度、莱阳等地杀害共产党员、干部、土改积极分子16177人。不仅造成了严重的人民生命财产损失,而且对农村社会产生了长期的负面影响。在这一点上,教训是深刻的。
     (二)决不能放松对农民的教育和引导。
     土改复查中,中央和华东局一再强调“群众路线”,强调“大权必须交给百分之九十的农民”,规定“如果党的规定与百分之九十农民的要求不符合时,则应修改党的决定”,结果山东各地党组织一度都程度不同地放弃了对农民运动的领导,尤其是取消了原有的司法机关,将杀人权由地委以上机关下放到县、区机关甚至是农民临时组成的人民法庭,造成局势的严重混乱。农民是民主革命的主力军,具有很强的革命性,但又有小生产者自私、落后的一面,因此在发挥其主力军作用的同时,必须加强对农民的教育和引导,否则就容易产生错误倾向。
     (三)重大政策必须要符合生产力发展的要求。
     土改复查中,山东不少地方党组织向农民让步,实行土地“大推平”政策。1947年8月底,“大推平”政策在全国土地会议上得到确认,并以法律形式在各解放区推行。结果严重侵犯中农的利益,挫伤了农民的生产积极性,使很多人产生错觉,认为“共产党喜欢贫困”,“穷有理”,劳动致富危险。如“渤海阳信9个村大推平之下,拿出地者84户,得地者95户,哪个庄大推平哪个庄,群众情绪不安,大卖牲口,大吃大喝,某庄原有牲口43头,推平后只剩4头了”。后来,中央放弃平分土地的做法,重新肯定了“中农绝对不得侵犯”的政策,才逐渐消除了农民的消极心理。
     尽管山东土改复查运动出现了严重“左”的偏向,但成绩是主要的。如果土改复查运动能够正确地解决当时土改中存在的问题,避免“左”倾错误的话,山东解放区的发展会更加顺利和健康。

     注释:
     ①《山东革命历史档案资料选编》第19辑第351页一一《舒同主任1947年8月在渤海区党委高干会议上的讲话》。
     ②《诸城县的土改和土改复查运动》(中共诸城市委党史委)。
     ⑧《中共胶东区党史大事记》第305页。
     ④《山东党史资料》1985年第2期第9页一一《解放战争时期渤海区的土地改革运劝》(中共惠民地委党史委)。
     ⑤《山东革命历史档案资料选编》第20辑166页。
     ⑥刘少奇1947年4月30日《关于土地改革问题的讲话》。
     ⑦《山东革命历史档案资料选编》第19辑第132页一一《邓子恢1947年6月在华东局扩大会议上的讲话》。
     ⑧《五莲县的土改复查运动》(中共五莲县委党史委)。
     ⑨《回顾1947年五莲县的土改复查工作》(辛玮1984年8月)。
     ⑩《山东革命历史档案资料选编》第21辑第5页一一《饶漱石关于山东各方面情形给毛主席的综合报告》(1948年9月3日)。
     11《山东革命历史档案资料选编》第19辑第170页一一《中共华东中央局关于山东土改复查新指示》(1947年7月7日)。
     12《山东革命历史档案资料选编》第19辑第267页——《华东局关于山东减租减息土地改革运动的总结》(1947年7月)
     作者:曹东亚

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