Menu

张小龙谈移动互联网产品

2012年7月24日24日下午14:20—23:30,腾讯微信张小龙做了一次长达8个多小时的讲演,以178页PPT的篇幅详尽地阐述了他对移动互联网产品的认识和经验。以下是@和菜头 根据张小龙演讲内容整理出的浓缩版。
一、微信的演化

2010年11月19日23时58分,张小龙在腾讯微博上写下了这么一句话:

我对iPhone5的唯一期待是,像iPad (3G)一样,不支持电话功能。这样,我少了电话费,但你可以用kik跟我短信,用google voice跟我通话,用facetime跟我视频。

(http://t.qq.com/p/t/2509031165724)

第二天,2010年11月20日,腾讯微信正式立项。一年零8个月之后的2012年7月,随着微信4.2版本的发布,可以看到那一晚张小龙关于iPhone5的所有狂想都在微信上得以实现。而就在此时此刻,张小龙都未必意识到一个简单的念头会在一年多之后如此深切地影响到一亿多用户;意识到一个普通用户此时此刻,仅凭一台iTouch和网络就可以完全改变以往有电话相随的生活。

产品经理之美就体现在这里。

微信1.0版的诞生是完全出自纯粹功利主义和现实主义的考虑,立项后2个月,微信1.0版的释出很大程度上是受到了KiK的启示—在新的移动互联网平台上,必将出现相应的移动通讯工具。KiK是一种免费短信,它很可能成为QQ在移动互联网时代的强大竞争对手。因此,从战略角度分析,腾讯必须开发一款移动通讯工具,这就是微信诞生的缘起。

尽管开发速度惊人,从立项到产品上线仅仅经过了2个月。但是微信1.0的免费模式在中国并不受欢迎。和欧美不同,中国运营商提供了丰富的套餐服务,正常用户每个月的包月短信根本消费不完。以省短信费为卖点的类KiK产品,在中国完全没有出路。

微信1.2版迅速转向了图片分享。从理性的角度分析,移动互联网时代必然是一个图片为王的时代。人们在有限的载体上没有耐心进行深度阅读,对图片的消费量会达到一个空前的程度。于是,微信1.2的主体功能变成了图片分享。然而市场对此反应冷淡,数据冷酷地证明了用户对手机图片分享没有兴趣,根本无法构成一种基本需求。

微信2.0的推出是微信团队在极短时间内的第三次试错。免费短信在利益上毫无吸引力,图片分享市场并不认可,产生内容的门槛远比预计要高。从用户在手机上输入内容的便利性出发,微信2.0将产品重心完全投入了语音通讯工具。作为一种重要指标,新浪微博每分钟出现一条关于微信的搜索结果,确立了微信2.0快速流行和传播的基调。

微信3.0是教科书式的经典产品开发节奏教程。当时,微信的竞争对手米聊拥有先发优势。米聊的产品经理甚至预判微信3.0的新功能是抄袭米聊的涂鸦功能。但是,微信此时已经初步明确了产品方向,没有做涂鸦功能,而是依托用户基础,提供了“查看附近的人”和“视频”功能。“查看附近的人”成为微信的爆发点,从此微信开始使用QQ邮箱和腾讯自身资源,进行强推广,用户突破2000万人大关,产品日新增用户以数十万量级增长,确立对竞争对手的绝对优势。

当用户超过一亿之后,微信4.0推出“朋友圈”,建立手机上的熟人社交圈,开放API接口打造移动社交平台。微信4.2推出视频通话功能,彻底封闭手机通讯工具上的任何其它可能。从此,微信确立了移动互联网时代生活方式的产品地位。未来一系列新功能的演进,都将围绕这一核心价值进行。任何试图以节省电话费、短信费作为竞争卖点的产品,此时已经完全失去了竞争的可能。因为微信提供的已经不再是单纯的通讯服务,而是移动互联网时代的生活方式。除非竞品能够提供一种更为便利和流行的模式,否则无法构成竞争关系。

二、移动互联网产品的方法论

手机作为一种联系工具,天然决定了移动互联网的主要服务对象是人群而非个人。移动互联网产品经理的主要任务是服务人群,主要工作是研究人类群落的行为模式。用产品为人群提供服务,并且要预判人群卷入之后行为模式的变化。

从方法论的角度思考,人类群落也处于演进过程中。早期人类是村落人群模式,村落中的每个人认识每个人,人际关系以非常实际的亲戚关系和职业关系为纽带。现代人类是社会化人群模式,人群数目极大增长,人际关系依托于抽象的社会生产关系:契约、合同、雇佣关系。。。。。。产品经理曾经是村落里的铁匠,他认识每个村民,每个村民也认识他。而在今天,产品经理完全退居幕后,他不可能认识每一个用户,用户甚至不知道这个人的存在。

因此,产品经理在方法论上存在着各种选择:他可以提供某种基于熟人群落的旧式服务,以增进熟人群落的情感为产品目的;他也可以提供某种基于大数人群的新式基础服务,以便于人们彼此认识,协调工作,从自利为基础的无序活动中自组织处有序活动;或者,他也可以提供某种中间类型的产品,帮助人们平滑度过两种人群模式,减少由于变化而产生的阵痛。

但是,产品经理的主流应该是服务于未来。先于人众接触新技术新知识,并把这种认知转化为产品,利用产品提供现代人类社会中的各种人群。尽一切可能,降低学习成本,利用人类的本能设计产品,使得人群得以顺利“滑入”新的产品使用场景。

在所有这一切之上,产品经理的目标应该是实现社会美和善和总量。

三、移动互联网产品经理的素养

1、 敏锐感知潮流变化。移动互联网产品会从相对匮乏时代进入相对富足时代,用户可以选择的产品会随时日流逝而日渐增加,产品终将成为一种时尚业。产品经理若是沉溺于各种新鲜玩意儿之中,追逐新奇,很可能错过真实的时代潮流,无法把握人群的真实需求。

2、 放弃理性思维。移动互联网的最大特点是变化极快,传统的分析用户,调研市场,制定产品三年规划,在新的时代里已经落伍。人类群落本身也在迁移演变,产品经理更应该依靠直觉和感性,而非图表和分析,把握用户需求。产品经理永远都应该是文艺青年,而非理性青年。

3、 海量的实践。尽管移动互联网方兴未艾,没有任何人可以自称是领域内的专家。但是,这不意味着存在天降天才的可能。《异类》中提出的一万小时定律,同样适用于产品经理。他们需要超过千次的产品实践,才能称得上是了解产品设计,拥有解决问题的能力。

4、 博而不专的积累。美术、音乐、阅读、摄影、旅游等等文艺行为貌似不能直接转化为生产力,但是合格的产品经理需要广博的知识储备,以此才能了解和认识大数量的人群,理解时代的审美,让自己的所思所感符合普通用户的思维范式。以此为基础,设计的产品才不会脱离人群。

5、 负责的态度。拥有合适的方法论和合适的素养,成功的产品经理还应该有对自己和产品负责的态度,唯其如此,产品经理才能足够偏执,清楚地知道自己究竟要做什么,抵挡住来自上级和绩效考核的压力,按照自己的意志不变形、不妥协地执行产品策划。

四、移动互联网产品设计的原则

1、 绝不考虑Web形态,一切考虑都基于APP。

2、 产品优先级:

(1)有趣高于功能,产品必须有趣,必须Cool,才可能形成传播和口碑。

(2)功能高于交互,明确的功能满足明确的需求,用户不会在意炫酷交互效果。

(3)交互高于UI。便捷、快速的交互设计为先,围绕具体功能实现UI,而非有优质UI方案为此专门设立一个功能。

3、 聚焦:一个APP只做一件事情,一个大而全的APP意味着全面的平庸。

4、 永远一维化:让用户在一个维度里解决具体的问题,Twitter的Timeline就是一个好的范例。而类似Facebook、Path那样的滑出式菜单则是一个灾难,因为这使得产品拥有两个维度,加大了用户理解的困难。

5、 保持主干清晰,枝干适度。产品的主要功能架构是产品的骨骼,它应该尽量保持简单、明了,不可以轻易变更,让用户无所适从。次要功能丰富主干,不可以喧宾夺主,尽量隐藏起来,而不要放在一级页面。

6、 不要让用户选择。同一个页面之内,有多个入口;同一个功能,有多个实现方式;同一个界面,有多个展示方式。这对于用户来说是一种痛苦而非享受,因为他们只会因此而感觉到困惑和恐惧。用户宁可采取重复操作漫长而固定的操作路径,也不愿意使用多变的快捷方式。

7、 隐藏技术,永远展现简单的、人性化的、符合人类直觉的界面。开发不可以为了炫技而展示功能,产品不可以为了炫耀而功能堆砌。

8、 拒绝个性化。除了依靠设计特色而立身的APP,换肤一类的个性化设计,除了让产品经理幻觉自己做了许多工作而自我满足之外,没有任何价值。它只能证明产品经理对自己的产品不自信,因为自信的产品经理凭借默认皮肤就可以满足用户。延伸开去,一个好的产品,其功能应该满足全球用户需求,无需为地区做特别定制化。

9、 产品一定程度上是为了满足人性中的贪嗔痴,这是用户的痛点。能把握住之后,产品经理应该超越其上,用产品帮助人们得以解脱。

10、想清楚自己究竟要做什么,不去迎合上司,不去讨好用户,不去取悦自己。

11、 分类!分类!分类!这是产品经理在确定产品主要功能构架之后,唯一应该为用户做的事情。分类无助于降低产品使用的难度,但是可以帮助用户认知产品和周边的世界。

12、永远围绕功能而做设计,永远不要倒过来做这件事情。

13、 一个产品的基本功能不受用户认可,做加法也无济于事。

14、 想不清楚一个功能点之前,宁可不做。

15、千万不要让用户在产品里“管理”什么。

五、“自然流”的设计思路

好的产品应该隐藏产品经理的个人意图,用户仅仅凭借直觉和经验就可以顺利使用,以达到“自然而然”的境界。坏的产品提供产品说明书,其恶劣程度和Tip和文字说明数量正相关。为此,好的产品经理可以和用户之间平等对话,无需刻意谄媚、恶意卖萌,产品本身就会说话。

自然流的产品,它本身就可以可用户交流。针对用户的任意一个动作,给出唯一的、清晰的反馈,并且能让用户没有任何偏差地接受。它没有人造物的冰冷生硬,而有一种温暖的人性存在。例如在IOS中微信朋友圈里的评论按钮,按下之后弹出“赞”和“评论”弹窗。这一弹窗快速向左滑动,然后像碰到什么东西一样快速向右反弹一个很小的距离,然后才最终停下来。用户可能根本未能意识到这一微小的停顿,但是在潜意识里,他们会感受到这个弹窗并非全然的人造物。因为根据生活经验,世界上没有任何东西可以从运动直接变到绝对静止。

绝对不要让用户在使用产品的过程中感受到产品经理的伟大和聪慧,产品经理应该完全隐没在产品之中。用户应该可以不假思索地上手,按照设计意图行事,从中获得既定的正向反馈。这一切应该自然而然地发生,用户感觉似乎产品天生就应该这样使用,从产品还未出现之前很久就应该如此。好的产品不会强调自己存在于世界之上,它只是努力地、毫无痕迹地成为这个世界的一部分。

做自然流的产品,必然会在美学上倾向于简单,反逻辑。产品经理必然的选择是做减法,在诸多功能中选取最能解决实际问题的一个,在诸多特性中选取最符合直觉的一项,于是产品也就拥有了优雅和简洁,让人难以忘怀。极简和极自然,使得模仿无法存在,因为没有人可以造出更好的体验来。

六、思考题

1、 为什么微信的对话界面中,是针对信息长按弹出删除,而不是在页面左上角放“编辑”键,点击进入编辑删除?

2、 为什么微信朋友圈不做分组功能?

3、 为什么微信视频对话,不可以直接发起,也没有通知声?

七、结语

我所说的,都是错的。

—张小龙

作者简介:

本文固定连接:http://www.dongjunke.com/?p=399,转载须征得作者授权。

如果觉得我的文章对您有用,请随意打赏。您的支持将鼓励我继续创作!

¥ 打赏支持
  • nike flyknit racer 2周前(04-07) 20楼

    I wanted to put you a little remark to say thanks a lot yet again for all the amazing techniques you’ve shown at this time. This has been simply remarkably generous of you to present without restraint what exactly some people could possibly have offered as an e book to end up making some cash for themselves, mostly given that you might have done it in case you considered necessary. These thoughts in addition worked to provide a easy way to know that most people have the identical passion similar to my very own to find out more and more pertaining to this issue. I know there are millions of more pleasurable sessions ahead for individuals who look over your website.

  • kd 10 3周前(04-05) 19楼

    I precisely desired to thank you so much again. I do not know the things that I would have followed without these information shared by you directly on such subject matter. It seemed to be a real distressing difficulty in my opinion, however , looking at the very skilled avenue you managed the issue took me to weep for fulfillment. I am happier for this support and hope you recognize what a powerful job you are putting in educating some other people all through a web site. Most likely you haven’t encountered any of us.

  • cheap jordans 3周前(04-03) 18楼

    I wanted to put you this tiny note to be able to give many thanks as before relating to the spectacular principles you have provided above. It is quite seriously generous of people like you to offer extensively what exactly some people could possibly have offered as an ebook in making some money for their own end, notably since you could have done it in the event you desired. Those inspiring ideas also acted like a great way to recognize that some people have a similar fervor similar to my own to see somewhat more on the subject of this problem. I think there are thousands of more enjoyable times up front for many who take a look at your blog post.

  • adidas ultra boost 3周前(04-01) 17楼

    My wife and i felt very happy Albert could complete his research by way of the ideas he obtained from your very own weblog. It is now and again perplexing to just continually be making a gift of solutions which usually other folks could have been selling. Therefore we remember we have you to thank for this. The most important explanations you made, the easy site menu, the friendships you can help to engender – it’s got most amazing, and it is assisting our son in addition to the family know that this article is enjoyable, which is really important. Thank you for the whole lot!

  • adidas gazelle sale 3周前(03-31) 16楼

    I needed to send you this little observation to be able to give many thanks over again with your marvelous things you’ve discussed in this case. This has been really pretty open-handed with people like you to allow publicly what exactly most of us could possibly have marketed as an e book to make some profit for their own end, notably considering that you could have tried it in case you wanted. The tips in addition worked as a great way to fully grasp that other people have the same zeal much like my very own to know the truth more on the topic of this matter. I am sure there are many more enjoyable occasions up front for individuals who scan your website.

  • lacoste polo 4周前(03-29) 15楼

    I together with my buddies were found to be studying the excellent techniques found on your web blog while all of a sudden developed a horrible feeling I had not expressed respect to the web blog owner for those techniques. Those young men became as a result joyful to see all of them and now have sincerely been taking pleasure in these things. Appreciate your being quite thoughtful and also for deciding upon this sort of decent information millions of individuals are really eager to be aware of. My very own honest apologies for not saying thanks to sooner.

  • yeezy boost 4周前(03-29) 14楼

    Thank you for every one of your effort on this web site. Betty take interest in making time for internet research and it is obvious why. Many of us know all concerning the compelling method you offer priceless things via this web blog and even invigorate participation from others on the concern and our simple princess is truly being taught a lot of things. Have fun with the rest of the new year. You are always conducting a useful job.

  • nike air max 270 4周前(03-28) 13楼

    I intended to send you the bit of note in order to say thanks again relating to the exceptional tactics you’ve provided in this article. This has been simply wonderfully open-handed with you to provide without restraint all that most people would have offered for an e book to end up making some dough for their own end, precisely since you could possibly have done it if you ever decided. The tips in addition acted to be a fantastic way to fully grasp most people have the identical dream really like mine to understand lots more in regard to this problem. I know there are thousands of more pleasurable sessions in the future for individuals who read carefully your blog post.

  • yeezy boost 4周前(03-27) 12楼

    My spouse and i got really satisfied that Jordan could round up his reports out of the ideas he came across from your web site. It’s not at all simplistic to simply continually be freely giving procedures that others might have been making money from. And we consider we’ve got you to appreciate because of that. The entire illustrations you’ve made, the simple blog navigation, the relationships you can aid to promote – it is everything unbelievable, and it is facilitating our son in addition to our family imagine that that subject matter is excellent, and that is exceptionally mandatory. Many thanks for everything!

  • chrome hearts outlet 4周前(03-26) 11楼

    I’m also writing to make you understand of the helpful discovery my cousin’s princess found visiting your site. She discovered many pieces, which included how it is like to possess an awesome coaching mindset to get men and women with ease comprehend some specialized subject areas. You undoubtedly did more than our expectations. Thanks for imparting such good, trustworthy, explanatory as well as easy guidance on that topic to Mary.

  • yeezy boost 4周前(03-24) 10楼

    I simply wanted to thank you so much once more. I am not sure what I could possibly have tried without the actual aspects revealed by you directly on such situation. It was before the frightful circumstance for me personally, however , observing the well-written mode you solved it took me to leap for delight. I’m just happier for this service and even expect you realize what a powerful job you are always putting in educating many people using your webpage. Probably you have never got to know all of us.

  • bape hoodie 1个月前(03-23) 9楼

    I needed to write you this little observation to help give thanks over again relating to the beautiful views you have shown on this website. This is quite unbelievably open-handed of people like you to offer without restraint exactly what a lot of people could possibly have offered for sale for an ebook to generate some money on their own, principally given that you could possibly have done it if you wanted. These things also worked as a good way to realize that most people have the identical dream just as my personal own to see way more in respect of this issue. I’m sure there are several more fun sessions in the future for individuals that look over your blog post.

  • yeezy boost 350 v2 1个月前(03-22) 8楼

    I needed to write you this tiny observation in order to say thanks a lot yet again for all the splendid opinions you’ve documented at this time. It is remarkably open-handed of people like you to provide without restraint just what most of us would have made available as an electronic book to help make some dough for themselves, most importantly given that you might have done it if you ever desired. The solutions as well served to become a easy way to fully grasp most people have the identical dreams just as my personal own to see more concerning this issue. I’m certain there are many more enjoyable instances up front for individuals who discover your site.

  • nike basketball shoes 1个月前(03-22) 7楼

    I precisely desired to thank you so much again. I’m not certain what I might have gone through without the actual smart ideas discussed by you relating to such topic. It had been the frightening difficulty in my view, however , viewing this professional strategy you managed it forced me to cry with delight. I am just grateful for your assistance and then wish you are aware of an amazing job you’re putting in training others all through your blog. Most probably you haven’t encountered all of us.

  • jordan shoes 1个月前(03-20) 6楼

    Needed to put you one very little remark just to give thanks over again regarding the remarkable tricks you’ve documented in this article. It’s surprisingly generous of people like you to grant unreservedly what numerous people could possibly have sold as an ebook to end up making some profit for themselves, most notably seeing that you could have tried it if you ever decided. Those good ideas also served as a great way to realize that other people have similar keenness just like my own to find out lots more regarding this issue. I am sure there are a lot more pleasant periods ahead for those who looked over your blog post.

  • nike huarache 1个月前(03-19) 5楼

    I’m just commenting to let you know of the wonderful experience my wife’s child enjoyed visiting your web site. She learned a lot of details, not to mention how it is like to have a great teaching mood to let many more without hassle thoroughly grasp specified problematic subject matter. You actually did more than her desires. Many thanks for rendering the necessary, healthy, educational and in addition cool thoughts on the topic to Janet.

  • golden goose 1个月前(03-18) 4楼

    I’m also writing to make you be aware of of the awesome experience my cousin’s child experienced going through the blog. She learned many things, including what it’s like to have a wonderful helping character to make a number of people without difficulty know some tricky things. You really surpassed readers’ desires. Many thanks for offering the practical, dependable, informative and also unique tips on this topic to Kate.

  • coach outlet store 1个月前(03-17) 3楼

    I simply wished to say thanks all over again. I am not sure the things I would have implemented in the absence of the creative ideas revealed by you on such theme. This was a real daunting setting in my circumstances, but taking note of a new skilled style you handled the issue made me to cry with delight. I’m just thankful for your service and thus believe you find out what a powerful job you have been accomplishing teaching some other people by way of your web page. More than likely you’ve never come across all of us.

  • goyard bags 1个月前(03-15) 2楼

    I want to point out my passion for your kindness for men and women who need guidance on this particular concern. Your real dedication to passing the solution all through became incredibly insightful and have consistently allowed regular people just like me to achieve their goals. Your own valuable instruction implies much a person like me and much more to my colleagues. Many thanks; from all of us.

  • yeezy boost 350 1个月前(03-14) 1楼

    Thanks a lot for providing individuals with an extremely breathtaking possiblity to read in detail from this site. It’s always so kind and as well , packed with fun for me and my office co-workers to visit your web site more than 3 times every week to find out the latest stuff you have got. Not to mention, I am also actually happy for the attractive thoughts you serve. Selected 4 areas on this page are essentially the very best we have all ever had.